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Themesicon: navigation pathGenerative Toolsicon: navigation pathComputer Art

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agreement between the viewer/user and the artist in the sense stated by Ernest H. Gombrich, who maintained that «only in exceptional cases are the illusions of art illusions of our actual surroundings.» [69] Ideas of controllability sold by contemporary production software break down here as almost all of the tools behave contrary to expectations. In any case, even designers have already recognized that in creating images, they can rely and fall back on machine support. Accordingly, a clause in the license also mentions that the user has assigned the software itself as being the ‹creator› of any printed or otherwise published work. But the core of the software is not there to allow the artist to use the different random generators that swallow up images, hunt down bugs on screen or write by themselves. [70] Much more important is the context, whose entire breadth is artistically, subversively and discursively under discussion. While the designer tries to make the tool his own, unwieldy though it may be, something unexpected happens: the means of production are infiltrated by art. [71] Because of all of the copyright restrictions and limits placed on the user, all the symptoms of a paternalistic group of


producers of digital content become virulent here, and ever more evident the more intensively one becomes involved with the software, and this also means reading the licenses, README files and ‹abouts,› and interpreting menus and the dialog boxes.

D. Conclusions

For the moment, this software is the tentative culmination of the development of computer art and, from the perspective of art history, the protagonists have no other links to each other beyond the utilization of a machine whose processes are controlled «before and after every text» by text. [72] And this is disregarding any outputs. In the beginning, there was an image, whether in motion or not, which, by means of symbolic script, could be programmed to be under the control of a computer. In the end, Ward chooses mimicry and not mimesis. If Nees, Nake and Noll and other ‹pioneers› still had to deal with the burden of sluggish machines, they nevertheless tried out many processes for creating images. And, with the introduction of methods of inspection and description, these results produced meaning. Here the role of the

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