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Themesicon: navigation pathGenerative Toolsicon: navigation pathGenerative Art

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create a programme structure understandable even by laymen, but which nevertheless implemented nuanced facets of constructed sounds. It should be stressed that, through the introduction of a higher order system of rules, and its consistent implementation, works of art were created that succeeded in producing connections between apparently disparate structures and aspects, and this resulted in unique, complex and diverse sounds. A prerequisite for this was ensuring that each musical parameter would be viewed as being independent from every other, that each would be treated as structurally equal, and that the resulting sound would be understood in connection to the time factor. In Cage and Stockhausen, different artistic interpretations of the same working method produced two artists who could not be more different from each other. An area of work was therefore created in which opposite poles could be related to each other. Within this region, bounded by these two extreme positions, Xenakis united music with the working structures of the natural sciences, architecture and the other arts. He tried to apply their principles of order to his music and to influence


them with his own music. It must, however, be stressed that besides anyintellectual considerations which stand behind each position referred to above, the question of design or form was what provided the crucial impetus for artistic work. The general artistic goal, which each of these artists pursued in different ways, was to free sounds from the will of the composer. In this respect, three fundamental thought structures for artistic work with generative elements are indicated that are valid not only for music but also occupy artists in other fields. Generative methodology places its own demands on the fine arts. Since the late 1960s, individual pioneers of computer art have set out to establish generally valid rules for creating generated artistic works. In the following, using works by Max Bense, Manfred Mohr, Harold Cohen and John Horton Conway as examples, four fundamental conditions are presented below for employing generative methodology in the fine arts. By 1965, Max Bense had already introduced the concept of 'generative aesthetics' and defined it as "[…] the combination of all operations, rules and theorems […], that can be applied to a number of material elements functioning as symbols

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