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more widespread with the dissemination of electronic and digital technologies. Intermedia techniques have been adopted into the repertoire of the graphic languages of form and the montage practices of the pop music video clip. They also occur as decorative, abstract visuals shown in the chillout rooms of clubs and raves as an optical counterpart to varieties of ambient music. Representatives of the ‹laptop scene› such as 242 Pilots and the commuter between art and music, Carsten Nicolai, interweave the design of sound and image with special hardware and software.
In the twentieth century, the spatiality of sound gained new significance. Space locations and movements had not been treated as design parameters in the theoretical reflection of music for a long time, although they had, for example, already been specifically implemented by Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli in sixteenth century Venice. Following attempts made by Gustav Mahler and Charles Ives, Edgard Varèse elevated space to a central category by striving to physically materialize his music in each
individual sound. By implementing the orchestra in a special way he allowed music to move in space, thus moving it close to sculptural and choreographic works.
Even before Varèse allowed sound masses and surfaces to be electronically mobilized in the Philips Pavilion, Karlheinz Stockhausen treated space as a design parameter equal to pitch, volume, duration and timbre—in 1956 in his five-channel piece recorded on tape, «Gesang der Jünglinge,» and in 1955–1957 in «Gruppen,» in which three orchestras were distributed around the audience. On his suggestion, the German Pavilion at the 1970 World's Fair in Osaka was built as a spherical auditorium, in which sounds could be moved electro-acoustically in three dimensions.
In 1967 Max Neuhaus reversed the customary direction of thought, thus attaining a new kind of musical space: the sound installation. Music should not be enriched by adding a new dimension to it, rather it should primarily start out from space: «Traditionally, composers have located the elements of a composition in time. One idea which I am interested in is locating them, instead, in space, and letting the listener place them in his own time.» For «Drive In Music,»