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conditioned the spectator even more drastically than Nauman's «Corridor,» and at the same time radically placed in question the border between public and private.
In the 1970s, an artist like Douglas Davis represented the converse of Nauman's explicit rejection of audience participation. Davis' art projects aimed to establish explicitly dialogical communication situations through new telecommunications media (see the section on «Satellite projects», below). With their goal of broad audience participation, however, Davis' projects were generally an exception to the rule: The major telecommunications projects of the 1970s and 1980s involved the participation of the artists who conducted them, but not of a wide audience. The situation only began to change in the 1990s, when more people gained access to the Internet.
Although the computer-based, digital multimedia technology developed and increasingly widely used
from the 1980s onward integrated the «interaction of user and apparatus Š in the medium itself,» this interaction was purely media-oriented and technical in scope. It is therefore possible to subscribe to Dieter Daniels' view of a shift in ideological paradigms away from the social-aesthetic unbordering ideas of the 1960s toward the technological interactivity concepts of the 1990s. Emancipationist approaches were scarcely to be found in the forms of human-machine interaction typical of that decade, and mediacritical approaches were even more rare. Several forms of media-assisted interaction can be distinguished in the 1980s and 1990s: interaction with a video story (interactive television and cinema), as in Lynn Hershman's «Deep Contact» (19891990); interaction between body and (static or dynamic) data realm, as in Jeffrey Shaw's «The Legible City» (1988), Peter Weibel's «Die Wand, der Vorhang (Grenze, die) fachsprachlich auch: Lascaux» (1993), Christa Sommerer & Laurent Mignonneau's «A-Volve» (19931994) or Ulrike Gabriel's «Breath» (19921993); interaction as a dialogue model,