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Themesicon: navigation pathOverview of Media Articon: navigation pathForerunners
Finnegans Wake (Joyce, James), 1923Intonarumori (Russolo, Luigi), 1914Licht-Raum-Modulator (Moholy-Nagy, László), 1930

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participation the texts on «Interaction, Participation, Networking» and «Audio Art» * Dziga Vertov, «Cinema Pravda and Radio Pravda,» 1925; cf. for mass effect the text on «Television—Art or Anti-art?,» and for the globalization aspect the text on «Social Technologies.» * F.T.P. Marinetti, Pino Masata, «La Radia,» 1933; cf. for mass effect the text on «Television—Art or Anti-art?» * Velimir Khlebnikov, «The Radio of the Future,» 1921; cf. for telecommunications the text on «Interaction, Participation, Networking» * László Moholy-Nagy, «Das simultane oder Polykino,» 1927; cf. the text on «Immersion and Interaction.» * James Joyce, «Finnegans Wake,» 1938; cf. the text on «Virtual Narrations

From utopia to practice

Even in the 1920s, these manifestos and utopias led to concrete technical experiments and early works, some of which were possible only because of the artists' enormous commitment. Here questions of aesthetics and feasibility are very closely linked. There were no adequate industrial devices available to the pioneers


for carrying out their ideas. They had to become inventors and handymen to make their utopias visible and audible. Russolo built his «Intonarumori» himself; Vertov wore himself out vainly trying to make sound montages using gramophone records before finding his way into film montage; Ruttmann built a film camera and even had it patented. Then in the mid 1920s, concepts emerged in and around the Bauhaus for cooperation between artists and technicians with support from industry, and with results that might possibly lead to real products. The first light-art demonstrations by Ludwig Hirschfeld-Mack and Kurt Schwerdtfeger took place in the Bauhaus itself, and their primitive but effective mechanisms were manually operated by students. In contrast with this, László Moholy-Nagy's «Licht- Raum-Modulator» (Light-Space Modulator) was driven by electric motors, but its engineering perfection served only aesthetic purposes. However, transferring such largescale light projections to a «simultaneous polycinema,» which would anticipate even the immersion offered by virtual reality art forms, remained an unrealized project.[9]

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