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César also uses a television set sculpturally in his piece «Télévision» in 1962. He strips a television of its casing and places it on a scrap sculpture. The whole thing is covered with a Perspex hood, with holes for the aerial, loudspeaker and operating knobs. The idea of the ready-made is transferred to the wonders of modern civilization, entirely in the spirit of Pierre Restany's Nouveau Réalisme manifesto.
A TV object by Isidore Isou, the founder of Lettrism, dates from the same year, 1962; it is called «La télévision déchiquetée ou l'anti-crétinisation.» Lettrism is a movement that has been somewhat unjustly forgotten. In the early 1950s, it anticipated many 1960s developments in conceptual and inter-media art. Isou proclaimed the destruction of the film in 1951, actually implementing this with a montage film and thus causing the scandal that brought the young Debord to Lettrism. The movement was best known for Lettrist hypergraphics, a set of meaningless signs that anticipated the development of comics and advertising
in many ways. In his TV object, Isou puts a template of such hypergraphic elements over the screen. This simple gesture makes the TV into a reservoir of constantly new signs, created by overlapping the hypergraphic matrix and the moving image. A key fact is that both César and Isou exhibited their TV objects in Paris in March 1962.
The Swiss artist, graphic designer and advertising expert Karl Gerstner changed an active TV image in a much more complex visual way. He developed various models of his «Auto-Vision» from 1962–1963: «The name identifies the difference from television. The aim is not to broadcast programs, but to create programs directly. For this we use daily television programs that are abstracted through a ‹pair of spectacles,› and alienated to the point of being non-representational,» is Gerstner's comment on the process. These Perspex ‹spectacles› have something in common with Op Art. They can be swapped around, and each pair creates a different effect. Twelve different ‹spectacles› versions of «Auto-Vision» were shown on a