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Nam June Paik
One reason Paik went from Germany to New York was to obtain access to the latest technologies. For a while he continued to work with modified TV sets, but in 1965 bought one of the first videotape machines, the Sony Portapack with open tape reels. Although it was not possible to edit or produce effects with the primitive black-and-white equipment, Paik got round the problem by interfering directly with the open tape reel and 'manually' manipulating the tape. The constant repetition and distortion he produced in this way transformed a few seconds of TV footage of the New York Mayor Lindsay into a 5-minute video piece.